Mental Health and Public Sector Healthcare: International Case Studies – PSI


Abramowitz, S.A., (2016). Humanitarian morals and money: Health sector financing and the prelude to the Liberian Ebola epidemic. Critical African Studies, 8(3), pp.319-334.

Adler, P.S. (2013). Foreword, in Sandberg, Å., (ed.), Nordic lights – Work, management and welfare in Scandinavia, Stockholm: SNS Foerlag.

Aiken, L.H., Clarke, S.P., Sloane, D.M., Sochalski, J.A., Busse, R., Clarke, H., Giovannetti, P., Hunt, J., Rafferty, A.M., and Shamian, J., (2001). Nurses’ reports on hospital care in five countries. Health Affairs, 20(3), pp. 43-53.

Alhassan, Y., Zaizay, Z., Dean, L., McCollum, R., Watson, V., Kollie, K., Piotrowski, H., Hastie, O., Parker, C., Dacombe, R. and Theobald, S. (2023). Perceived impacts of COVID-19 responses on routine health service delivery in Liberia and UK: Cross-country lessons for resilient health systems for equitable service delivery during pandemics. BMC Health Services Research (23), pp. 304.

Alves, D.F.S. and Guirardello, E.B., (2016). Safety climate, emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction among Brazilian paediatric professional nurses. International Nursing Review, 63(3), pp.328-335.

Araújo, J.C. (20 June 2023) Propostas de greve e mobilizações da enfermagem serão discutidas nos sindicatos. CUT. Available at:, accessed 11/06/2023.

Armstrong P., and Armstrong H., (2022). It there a future for nursing homes in Canada?  Healthcare Management Forum, 35(1), pp.17-20.

Asplund, S., Åhlin, J., Åström, S. and Lindgren, B.M., (2022). Experiences of work-related stress among highly stressed municipal employees in rural northern Sweden. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 17(1), p.2056957.

Audi, A. (25 April 2022) Following backlash, Lula gives up on revoking labor reform. The Brazilian Report. Available at: accessed 26/06/2023.

Australian Bureau of Statistics, (2021). First insights from the national study of mental health and wellbeing, 2020-21. Australian Bureau of Statistics (

Babalola, O.J., Sesay, H.W., Blebo, L.S., Whesseh, F.K., Umeokonkwo, C.D., Adewuyi, P.A. and Amo-Addae, M. (2022). The influence of first wave of COVID-19 outbreak on routine healthcare services, Liberia, August 2020: A mixed study approach. BMC Health Services Research,22(1), pp.1-11.

Baldonedo-Mosteiro, M., Almeida, M.C.D.S., Baptista, P.C.P., Sánchez-Zaballos, M., Rodriguez-Diaz, F.J. and Mosteiro-Diaz, M.P., (2019). Burnout syndrome in Brazilian and Spanish nursing workers. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 27. Available at:

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Barello, S., Falco-Pegueroles, A., Rosa, D., Tolotti, A., Graffigna, G. and Bonetti, L., (2020). The psychosocial impact of flu influenza pandemics on healthcare workers and lessons learnt for the COVID-19 emergency: A rapid review. International Journal of Public Health, 65(7), pp.1205-1216.

Beddoe, A.M., Jallah, W. and Dahn, B. (2022). Program planning to develop infrastructure for cancer care in Liberia. JCO Global Oncology, 8, p.e2100287.

Benach, J., Vives, A., Amable, M., Vanroelen, C., Tarafa, G,. and Muntaner, C., (2014). Precarious employment: Understanding an emerging social determinant of health. Annual Review of Public Health, 35, pp.229-253.

Bender, G., (2023). Swedish trade unions and migration: Challenges and responses, in Lerpold, L., Sjöberg, O., and Wennberg, K., (eds), Migration and integration in a post-pandemic world: Socioeconomic opportunities and challenges, pp. 199-23). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Campos-Serna, J., Ronda-Pérez, E., Artazcoz, L., Moen, B.E. and Benavides, F.G., (2013). Gender inequalities in occupational health related to the unequal distribution of working and employment conditions: A systematic review. International Journal for Equity in Health, 12(1), pp.1-18.

Canadian Federation of Nurses Unions (CFNU), (28 March 2023). Budget 2023 falls short on action to keep nurses from leaving profession

Canada Nurses Association (CNA), (28 March 2023). Budget 2023 renews commitment to federal health funding, but lags in concrete action for HHR.

Canada Nurses Association (CNA), (2022). Stop the bleeding.

Canadian Intergovernmental Conference Secretariat, (2000). News release: First Ministers meeting communique on health (800-038). Ottawa, ON: Government of Canada, September 20, 2000.

Canadian Occupational Safety, (2023). Ontario expanding PTSD presumption to include nurses.   Accessed 14 June 2023

Canadian Union of Public Employees (CUPE), (2021), Occupational mental health guidelines.   Accessed 23 June 2023.

Child Soldiers International, Child Soldiers Global Report 2001 – Liberia (2001)   accessed 24/07/2023.

Cortès-Franch, I., Puig-Barrachina, V., Vargas-Leguás, H., Arcas, M.M. and Artazcoz, L., (2019). Is being employed always better for mental wellbeing than being unemployed? Exploring the role of gender and welfare state regimes during the economic crisis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(23), p.4799.

Čartolovni, A., Stolt, M., Scott, P.A. and Suhonen, R., (2021). Moral injury in healthcare professionals: A scoping review and discussion. Nursing Ethics, 28(5), pp.590-602.

Castro, M.C., Massuda, A., Almeida, G., Menezes-Filho, N.A., Andrade, M.V., de Souza Noronha, K.V.M., Rocha, R., Macinko, J., Hone, T., Tasca, R. and Giovanella, L., (2019). Brazil’s unified health system: the first 30 years and prospects for the future. The Lancet, 394(10195), pp.345-356.

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, (2020). Workplace mental health: A review and recommendations. CAMHS: Canada

Cefaliello, A., (20 January 2022). Psychosocial risks in Europe: National examples as inspiration for a future directive. ETUI Research PaperPolicy Briefs 2021.06. accessed 12/07/2023.

Cezar-Vaz, M.R., Xavier, D.M., Bonow, C.A., Vaz, J.C., Cardoso, L.S., Sant’Anna, C.F. and da Costa, V.Z., (2022). Domains of physical and mental workload in health work and unpaid domestic work by gender division: A study with primary health care workers in Brazil. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(16), p.9816. Available at:

Chen, N., Dahn, B., López Castañeda, C., Muther, K., Panjabi. R., & Price, M., (no date) Community Health Worker’s in Liberia: What did Liberia do? Exemplars in global health. Accessed 17/06/2023

Corin, L., Pousette, A., Berglund, T., Dellve, L., Hensing, G. and Björk, L., (2021). Occupational trajectories of working conditions in Sweden: Development trends in the workforce, 1997–2015. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 47(5), p.335.

Cotrin, P., Moura, W., Gambardela-Tkacz, C.M., Pelloso, F.C., Santos, L.D., Carvalho, M.D.D.B., Pelloso, S.M. and Freitas, K.M.S. (2020). Healthcare workers in Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional online survey. INQUIRY: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing, 57, pp.1-11.

Coube, M., Nikoloski, Z., Mrejen, M. and Mossialos, E., (2023). Inequalities in unmet need for health care services and medications in Brazil: A decomposition analysis. The Lancet Regional Health–Americas, 19.

CTV News, (2023). B.C. to become first province in Canada to mandate nurse-to-patient ratios.,units%20it%20is%201%3A5.

Crisis24, (24 September 2019). Liberia: Nationwide healthcare staff strike September 23. accessed 24/07/2023.

CUPE, (2023). Federal Budget 2023: Summary and analysis, CUPE National Research.,to%20university%20properties%2C%20and%20specific

CUPE, (2022). Submission to the House of Commons Standing Committee on finance.

CUPE, 13 Dec 2017). CUPE PEI applauds new PTSD legislation . Accessed 13 June 2023,

Dattani, S., Ritchie, H. and Roser, M., (2021). Mental health. Published online at OurWorldInData. org. [Online Resource] Accessed 10/05/2023

Deloitte. (2019). The ROI in workplace mental health programs: Good for people, good for business – A blueprint for workplace mental health programs. Deloitte Insights.

Dollard, M.F. and Karasek, R.A., (2010). Building psychosocial safety climate: Evaluation of a socially coordinated PAR risk management stress prevention study, in Houdmont, J. and Leka, S. (eds.), Contemporary occupational health psychology: Global perspectives on research and practice (Vol. 1). John Wiley & Sons. pp.208-233.

Dorcadie, M., (26 October 2022). In Brazil, workers’ rights have been continuously eroded since the 2017 labour code reform. Equal Times. Available at:

Dozois D.J.A., (2021). Mental health research Canada. Anxiety and depression in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic: A national survey. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 62(1):136-142. doi: 10.1037/cap0000251.

Dragano, N., Siegrist, J. and Wahrendorf, M., (2011). Welfare regimes, labour policies and unhealthy psychosocial working conditions: a comparative study with 9917 older employees from 12 European countries. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 65(9), pp.793-799.

Edwards, J.A., Webster, S., Van Laar, D. and Easton, S., (2008). Psychometric analysis of the UK Health and Safety Executive’s management standards work-related stress Indicator Tool. Work and Stress, 22(2), pp.96-107.

Egerstrom, C. (2022), Burnout and stress: How Sweden supports your mental health [link removed for Information Security reason]

Eurofound (2010), Work-related stress. Dublin: Eurofound. Work-related stress (report) | Eurofound (, accessed 06/06/2023.

Eurofound, (2013), Impact of the crisis on working conditions in Europe. Dublin: Eurofound, Accessed 06/06/2023.

Eurofound, (2021) Working conditions and sustainable work: an analysis using the job quality framework. Dublin: Eurofound,  accessed 12/07/2023.

Eurofound, (2022). Work organisation. Dublin: Eurofound, Accessed 08/05/2023.

Eurofound and EU-OSHA, (2014), Psychosocial risks in Europe: Prevalence and strategies for prevention, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

EU-OSHA., (2022). Flash Eurobarometer OSH Pulse survey: Occupational safety and health in post-pandemic workplacesSweden. accessed 12/07/2023.

EU- OSHA, Brun, E., and Milczarek, M., (2007). Expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks related to occupational safety and health. Luxembourg: EU-OSHA Accessed on 14/06/2023.

Fall, I.S., (2019). Ebola virus disease outbreak in Liberia: application of lessons learnt to disease surveillance and control. The Pan African Medical Journal, 33(2), pp 1.

Farias, S.N.P.D., Souza, N.V.D.D.O., Andrade, K.B.S.D., Soares, S.S.S. and Carvalho, E.C., (2023). Pejotização and implications for nursing work in Brazil: Repercussions of neoliberalism. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, 57, p.e20220396.

Farias, S.N.P.D., Souza, N.V.D.D.O., Andrade, K.B.S.D., Soares, S.S.S. and Carvalho, E.C., (2021). Brazilian labor reform and implications for nursing work: a case study. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, 55, p.e20210230.

Fernandes, M.A., Soares, L.M.D. and de Silva, J.S., (2018). Work-related mental disorders among nursing professionals: a Brazilian integrative review. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Trabalho, 16(2), p.218.

Findlay, L., and Arim, R., (2020). Canadians report lower self-perceived mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada, Available from

Financial Accountability Office (FAO), (March 8 2023) Ontario Health Sector: Spending Plan Review.

Fletcher, B., and Gallegos, B., (15 May 2023). With Lula in charge, what’s next for the Brazilian left? The Nation. Available at:

Ferreira, M. C., Mendonca, H., Fischer, R., and Martins, L.F., (2021). Work stress research in Brazil, in Sharma, K., Cooper, C., and Pestonjee, D.M. (eds.) Organizational stress around the world. Research and practice. London: Routledge.

Franklin, P., Bérastégui, P., Cefaliello,A., & Musu, T.,(2023). Social sustainability at work and the essential role of occupational safety and health, in N. Countouris, A.,Piasna, & S.Theodoropoulou (eds.) Benchmarking Working Europe, ETUI and ETUC.

Franklin, P. and Gkiouleka, A., (2021). A scoping review of psychosocial risks to health workers during the Covid-19 pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(5), p.2453.

Gallup, (2022). State of the global workplace: 2022 report. Accessed 03/05/2023.

Goularte, J.F., Serafim, S.D., Colombo, R., Hogg, B., Caldieraro, M.A. and Rosa, A.R., (2021). COVID-19 and mental health in Brazil: Psychiatric symptoms in the general population. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 132, pp.32-37.

Gacek, S. (10.03.2023) Can the new Lula Government restore and strengthen labor and trade union rights in Brazil? Washington Brazil Office. Available at:

Gordan, S., Buchanan, J., Bretherton, T., (2008). Safety in numbers: Nurse-to-patient ratios and the future of health care. New York: Cornell University Press

Hall, A., Ricciardelli, R., Sitter, K., Medeiros, D.S., De Boer, C. and Small, S., (2018). Occupational stress injuries in two Atlantic provinces: A policy analysis. Canadian Public Policy, 44(4), pp.384-399.

Harvey, S.B., Modini, M., Joyce, S., Milligan-Saville, J.S., Tan, L., Mykletun, A., Bryant, R.A., Christensen, H. and Mitchell, P.B., (2017). Can work make you mentally ill? A systematic meta-review of work-related risk factors for common mental health problems. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 74(4), pp.301-310.

Hassard, J., Teoh, K.R., Visockaite, G., Dewe, P. and Cox, T., (2018). The cost of work-related stress to society: A systematic review. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 23(1), pp.1–17.

Health–Europe, T.L.R. (2023). Sweden’s economic inequality gap is widening and worrying. The Lancet Regional Health-Europe, 26.

Helfferich, B. and Franklin, P., (2022). Work-related psychosocial risks in the healthcare and long-term care sectors. Sources, factors, and prevention measures . Brussels: ETUI.

Hospital Employees Union (HEU), (2022a). Poll: Two years into pandemic, one in three health care workers likely to quit. News Release 22 March 2022. chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/ Accessed 11/07/2023

Hospital Employees Union (HEU), (2022b). Beyond Code White: Addressing violence in the health care workplace takes a team. accessed 11/07/2023.

Hospital Employees Union (HEU), (2023). Hospital Employees’ Union (HEU) Submission for the Select Standing Committee on Finance and Government Services Budget Consultation 2024. Accessed 23 June 2023

Hospital Employee Union (HEU), (Feb 28 2023) Major investments in front-line health services, but few details on promised reforms to seniors’ care. Media release

Hospital Employees Union (HEU), (April 29 2022). More privatized health care workers are brought back into the public sector. Media release 

Huupponen M., (2021). On the Corona frontline: The experiences of care workers in Sweden, Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. accessed 11/07/2023.

ILO, (no date). Psychosocial risks and work-related stress.,work%20is%20likely%20to%20increase.

International Labor Organization, (2016). Workplace stress: A collective challenge. International Training Centre of the ILO. Turin. accessed 11/07/2023.

Ipsos, (2019). Mental illnesses increasingly recognized as disability, but stigma persists. Report, RBC Insurance.,suffering%20from%20a%20mental%20illness.

Kendall, C., Ellery, A.E.L., Carneiro Junior, N., da Silva Santana, R., Cruz, L.N., Cohen, M., Leal, M., Lima, L.N.G.C., de Sousa Mascena Veras, M.A., de Fátima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque, M. and Lima, K.V.B., (2023). Reports from the frontline: Health workers describe COVID-19 risks and fears in five cities in Brazil. BMC Health Services Research, 23(1), p.276.

Kentikelenis, A., King, L., McKee, M. and Stuckler, D., (2015). The International Monetary Fund and the Ebola outbreak. The Lancet Global Health, 3(2), pp.e69-e70.

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Kim, I.H., Muntaner, C., Shahidi, F.V., Vives, A., Vanroelen, C. and Benach, J., (2012). Welfare states, flexible employment, and health: a critical review. Health Policy, 104(2), pp. 99-127.

Kivimäki, M. and Kawachi, I., (2015). Work stress as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Current Cardiology Reports, 17, pp.1-9.

Konchinski, V,. (14 November 2022). Labor reform completes five years with worsening jobs and promise of revision. Brasil de Fato. Available at: accessed 11/07/2023

Kortum, E., Leka, S., and Cox, T., (2010). Psychosocial risks and work-related stress in developing countries: health impact, priorities, barriers and solutions. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 23(3), pp.225-238.

Kortum, E. and Leka, S., (2014). Tackling psychosocial risks and work-related stress in developing countries: The need for a multilevel intervention framework. International Journal of Stress Management, 21(1), p.7.

Kvart, S., Jonsson, J., Bodin, T., Håkansta, C., Kreshpaj, B., Orellana, C., Östergren, P.O., Nylén, L. and Matilla-Santander, N., (2021). Precarious employment and psychosocial hazards: a cross-sectional study in Stockholm county. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(21), p.11218.

Landsbergis, P.A., Grzywacz, J.G. and LaMontagne, A.D., (2014) Work organization, job insecurity, and occupational health disparities. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 57(5), pp.495-515.

Leka, Stavroula, Jain, A and World Health Organization. (‎2010)‎. Health impact of psychosocial hazards at work: an overview. World Health Organization. accessed 11/07/2023.

Lippel, K., and Sikka, A., (2010). Access to workers’ compensation benefits and other legal protections for work-related mental health problems: A Canadian overview. Canadian Journal of Public Health 101(7), pp. 16–22.

Lippel, K., (2011). Law, public policy and mental health in the workplace. Healthcare Papers 11(Sp.), pp. 20–37.

Löfven, S., and Nordmark, E., (2021). Government Communication 2020/21:92 A good work environment for the future – the Government’s work environment strategy 2021-2025. accessed 12/07/2023.

Lovik, A., González-Hijón, J., Kähler, A.K., Valdimarsdóttir, U.A., Frans, E.M., Magnusson, P.K., Pedersen, N.L., Hall, P., Czene, K., Sullivan, P.F. and Fang, F., (2023). Mental health indicators in Sweden over a 12-month period during the COVID-19 pandemic–Baseline data of the Omtanke2020 Study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 322, pp.108-117.

Lunau, T., Rigó, M. and Dragano, N., (2020). From national labor and social policies to individual work stressors: multilevel concepts, evidence, and challenges, in Theorell, T., (ed.), Handbook of socioeconomic determinants of occupational health: From macro-level to micro-level evidence, pp.131-148. Switzerland AG: Springer Nature.

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Machado, M.H., Koster, I., Aguiar Filho, W., Wermelinger, M.C.D.M.W., Freire, N.P. and Pereira, E.J., (2019). Labor market and regulatory processes–Nursing in Brazil. Ciência and Saúde Coletiva, 25, pp.101-112.

Madsen, I. E. H., Nyberg, S. T., Magnusson Hanson, L. L., Ferrie, J. E., Ahola, K., Alfredsson, L., Kivimaki, M. (2017). Job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis with additional individual participant data. Psychological Medicine, 47(8), 1342–1356. 

Marques, RM and Nakatani, P. (01 May 2023). Lula’s return and the legacy of destruction. Monthly Review. Available at:, accessed 11/07/2023.

Martinez, M.C., do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, M. and Fischer, F.M., (2015). A cohort study of psychosocial work stressors on work ability among Brazilian hospital workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 58(7), 795-806.

Martínez, M.M., Fernández-Cano, M.I., Feijoo-Cid, M., Serrano, C.L. and Navarro, A., (2022). Health outcomes and psychosocial risk exposures among healthcare workers during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak. Safety Science, 145, p.105499.

Martins-Filho, P.R., Araújo, B.C.L., Sposato, K.B., de Souza Araújo, A.A., Quintans-Júnior, L.J. and Santos, V.S. (2021). Racial disparities in COVID-19 related deaths in Brazil: black lives matter? Journal of Epidemiology31(3), pp.239-240.

Massuda, A., Hone, T., Leles, F.A.G., De Castro, M.C. and Atun, R., (2018). The Brazilian health system at crossroads: progress, crisis and resilience. BMJ Global Health, 3(4), p.e000829.

McGillis Hall, L., and Visekruna, S. (2020). Outlook on nursing: A snapshot from Canadian nurses on work environments pre-COVID-19. Canadian Federation of Nurses Unions. accessed 11/07/2023.

Medeiros, A.I.C.D., Mesquita, R.B.D., Macêdo, F.D.S., Matos, A.G.D.C. and Pereira, E.D., (2022). Prevalence of burnout among healthcare workers in six public referral hospitals in northeastern Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study. São Paulo Medical Journal, 140, pp.553-558.

Menezes, F. Z. (04 July, 2023). Private health providers hope to negotiate lower nursing wages. The Brazilian Report. Accessed 4/072023.

Mental Health Commission Canada (MHCC), (2012). Making the case for investing in mental health in Canada. MHCC, Canada. accessed 11/07/2023.

Mental Health Research Canada (MHRC,) (2021). Psychological health and safety in Canadian workplaces. accessed 11/07/2023.

Milionis, G (2023). Current status of WHS Regulations addressing psychosocial risks (March 7 2023).. Global Workforce Insider, Norton Rose Fulbright. Accessed 14 June 2023.

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Moncada, S., Utzet, M., Molinero, E., Llorens, C., Moreno, N., Galtés, A. and Navarro, A., (2014). The Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) in Spain—a tool for psychosocial risk assessment at the workplace. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 57(1), pp.97-107.

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Rigó, M., Dragano, N., Wahrendorf, M., Siegrist, J. and Lunau, T., (2021). Work stress on rise? Comparative analysis of trends in work stressors using the European working conditions survey. International Archives of Occupational and |Environmental Health, 94, pp.459-474.

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